ADVERB

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A.    BACKGROUND

In studying English, there are many things that must be known in advance, one of which is the parts of words spoken or in English is called Parts of Speech. In English grammar, Parts of Speech classified in eight types of words are noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction and interjection. But in this paper will only discuss about the adverb in accordance with the defined scope.

 

B.     PURPOSE OF DISCUSSION

Adverb our purposes is to find out more about meaning adverb, adverb types and examples.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER II

GRAMMER MATERIAL

A.    DEFINITION OF AN ADVERB

An adverb is a word that changes or qualifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb, clause, sentence or any other word or phrase, except that it does not include the adjectives and determiners that directly modify nouns.

Adverbs typically answer questions such as how?, in what way?, when?, where?, and to what extent?. This function is called the adverbial function, and is realized not just by single words (i.e., adverbs) but by adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses.

a.      Adverbial Phrases

Adverb phrases, are phrases that do the work of an adverb in a sentence. They, like adverbs, can describe:

  1. Time (answers the question ‘When?’) Example : She will be arriving in a short time.
  2. Place (answers the question ‘Where?’) Example : He is waiting near the wall.
  3. Manner (answers the question ‘How?’) Example : They are discussing the matter in a civilized way.

 

b.      Adverbial Clauses

Adverbial clause contains a subject and a predicate and a modify a verb.

Example :

  • I saw Joe when I went to the store. (explicit subject I)
  • He sat quietly in order to appear polite. (implied subject he)

According to Sidney Greenbaum and Randolph Quirk, adverbial clauses function mainly as adjuncts or disjuncts. In these functions they are like adverbial phrases, but due to their potentiality for greater explicitness, they are more often like prepositional phrases (Greenbaum and Quirk,1990)

Example :

  • We left after the speeches ended. (adverbial clause)
  • We left after the end of the speeches. (adverbial prepositional phrase)

Contrast adverbial clauses with adverbial phrases, which do not contain a clause.

Example :

  • I like to fly kites for fun.

Adverbial clauses modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs.

Example :

  • Hardly had I reached the station when the train started to leave the platform.

 

The adverbial clause in this sentence is “when the train started to leave the platform” because it is a subordinate clause and because it has the trigger word “when”.

 

            Kinds of adverbial clauses

kind of clause

common conjunctions

function

example

time clauses

when, before, after, since, while, as, as long as, until,till, etc. (conjunctions that answer the question “when?”); hardly, scarcely, no sooner, etc.

These clauses are used to say when something happens by referring to a period of time or to another event.

Her goldfish died when she was young.

conditional clauses

if, unless, lest

These clauses are used to talk about a possible or counterfactual situation and its consequences.

If they lose weight during an illness, they soon regain it afterwards.

purpose clauses

in order to, so that, in order that

These clauses are used to indicate the purpose of an action

They had to take some of his land so that they could extend the churchyard.

reason clauses

because, since, as, given

These clauses are used to indicate the reason for something.

I couldn’t feel anger against him because I liked him too much.

result clauses

so…that

These clauses are used to indicate the result of something.

My suitcase had become so damaged on the journey home that the lid would not stay closed.

concession clauses

although, though, while

These clauses are used to make two statements, one of which contrasts with the other or makes it seem surprising.

I used to read a lot although I don’t get much time for books now.

place clauses

where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere, etc. (conjunctions that answer the question “where?”)

These clauses are used to talk about the location or position of something.

He said he was happy where he was.

Clause of Comparison

As

Adverb as is a clause which states comparison.

Johan can speak English as fluently as his teacher.

clauses of manner

as, like, the way

These clauses are used to talk about someone’s behavior or the way something is done.

I was never allowed to do things as I wanted to do them.

 

 

B.     THE TYPES OF ADVERB

 1.      Adverbs of Manner

Is an adverb of manner adverb that express or explain how something activities or work happens or is done.

Example : carefully, slowly, well. Etc

Therefore, adverb of manner answer the question how.

Adverb is often formed from an adjective which is then converted into an adverb.

Example :

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

Good

Well

Careful

Carefully

Beautiful

Beautifully

Slow

Slowly

Soft

Softly

 

Adverb is often formed by adding –ly behind adjective.

Example :

  • Ø quick (adjective) – He’s quick at learning new things.
  • quickly (adverb) – He learns quickly.
  • bad (adjective) – He didn’t get a bad test score.
  • badly (adverb) – He didn’t do badly in his test.

For the adverb from of the adjective that ends in the letters “-y” instead of “-y” with “-i” and add “-ly”.

Example :

  • easy (adjective) – He thinks math is easy.
  • easily (adverb) – He can do math easily.
  • happy (adjective) – He’s a happy man.
  • happily (adverb) – He works happily every day.

For the adverb form of the adjective that ends in the letters “-le” instead of “-le” with “-ly”.

Example :

  • simple (adjective) – The teacher makes difficult things simple.
  • simply (adverb) – He teaches simply and clearly.

Some of the same adjective adverb.

Example :

  • He runs fast (adverb) – He’s a fast runner. (adjective)
  • He studies hard. (adverb) – It’s a hard life. (adjective)

Adverb for “good” is a “well”.

Example :

  • She’s a good pianist.
  • She plays the piano well.

Adverb can also change the adverb-adjective and adverb more.

Example :

  • That’s a good book.
  • That’s a very good book.
  • She’s a talented girl.
  • She’s an incredibly talented girl.
  • You’re right!
  • You’re absolutely right!

 

2.      Adverb of  Frequency

 

Adverbs of frequency used to represent how often an activity carried out or an event occurs. This adverbs answer the question “How often” or “How frequently” of an activity or event.

 

Consists of an adverb of frequency adverb of adverb of quantity and number.

Adverb of Frequency

Frequency

Example

Adverb of quatity

Always

100%

always eats hygiene food to avoid stomach ache.

Often

60%

My mother often surprises me with her ideas.

Frequently

She frequently rearranges her bedroom.

Usually

80%

usually wake up at 4 a.m.

Sometimes

40%-50%

The worker sometimes feels bored with his work.

Hardly ever

The old man, her prospective father-in-law, hardly ever goes to the mall.

Seldom

10%-25%

Tina seldom washes her shoes by herself.

Rarely

1%-10%

The rich man is rarely at home.

Occasionally

He occasionally climbs a mountain and sleeps in a tent.

Never

She never sheds tears in front of other people.

Adverb of Number

  • once,
    twice/two times ,
    three times ,
    four times

I do the exercise three times a week in order to gain my muscle mass.

 

Adverbs of frequency are generally placed before or after the verb to be.

Example :

– We usually go by car.
– She often works at the weekend.
– There is always some pollution in the air.
– Limestone was frequently used as a building material.
– She hardly ever calls me.
– I sometimes have to work late.
– If something rarely happens, it does not happen very often.
– They seldom watch television these days.

Occasionally, sometimes, often, frequently, and may also be placed Usually at the beginning or end of a sentence.

Example :

– Sometimes I think she likes me.
– I play badminton occasionally.
– I see her quite often.

Rarely and seldom can also be placed at the end of a sentence is often with very.

Example :

– We see them rarely.
– He drinks coffee very seldom.

 

 

3.      Adverb of Time

Adverb of time is an adverb used to indicate the timing of an activity or event.

when: today, yesterday, later, now, last year
how long: all day, not long, for a while, since last year
how often: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly

Adverbs are usually placed at the end when sentence.

Example :

– Mark went to the John’s house yesterday.
– I’m going to tidy my room tomorrow.

But, when an adverb can also be placed in other positions in the sentence to give emphasis intensity or different meaning.

Example :

– Later Mark ate some porridge. (emphasis on time priority)

– Mark later ate some porridge. (formal as well as a report)

– Mark ate some porridge later. (placement of common use, there is no particular meaning emphasis)

Adverb how long generally placed at the end of a sentence, for example:

– He stayed in the John’s house all day.

– My father lived in Australia for a year.

for always followed by a phrase indicating period of time (duration), for example: for three days, for a week, for several years, for two centuries.

since always followed by a phrase which suggests a certain time, for example: since Monday, since 1997, since the last war.

Howoften adverb used to indicate how often an event done. Adverb is placed before or after the main verb auxiliary verb such as be, have, may, must, etc..

Example:

– I often eat vegetarian food. (before the main verb)

– He never drinks milk. (before the main verb)

– You must always fasten your seat belt. (after the auxiliary verb must)

 

Example adverb of time :

 

Adverb of time

Example

Now

Please call me later, I’m studying now.

Today

Athiya arrives from Osaka today.

From… to/until…

She’ll prepare for the final test from now to the next saturday.

In the

In the 20th century, there are so many social networking websites.

Ago

They sent a box of tiramisu cake to me eleven days ago.

Last

I paid a call my friend in the hospital last week.

Yesterday

He got the birthday surprise party yesterday.

Since

The factory has operated since 1983.

Then

She was poor then.

Tomorrow

She’ll have dinner at the cafe near her home tomorrow.

 

 

4.      Adverb of Place

Adverb of place and direction is an adverb used to indicate the place and direction of the occurrence of an activity or event.

Where it can be used to ask questions to demonstrate an adverb of place and direction.

Example Adverb of Place :

Adverb of Place and Direction

Example

here
there
He is watching the football match there.
In Alma works in Bandung for a while.
north
south
east
west
My apartment faces north.
north of…
south of…
east of…
west of Cilegon
They built a house ten miles west of Cilegon.
To I’m on a flight to Jakarta.
above
upstairs
below
back
around
The jet plane flew above.
away She lives away from her parents.
somewhere
everywhere
You can find the mineral water everywhere.

Adverbs of place after the main verb

Example:

– I looked everywhere.

– John looked away, up, down, around …

– I’m going home, out, back …

– Come in

Adverbs of place after the object

Example:

– They built a house nearby.

– She took the child outside.

Some adverbs of place also has a function as prepositions, for example: about, across, along, around, behind, by, down, in, off, on, over, round, through, under, up.

In addition, the adverbs of place also has words ending in-wards which shows a movement in a particular direction, for example: backwards, forwards, downwards, upwards, inwards, outwards, northwards, southwards, eastwards, Westwards, homewards, onwards.

example:

– I lost my balance and fell backwards.

– The ship turned Westwards, away from the coast.

Be careful with the word towards, although ending in-wards, towards not adverbs of place, but a preposition is always followed by a noun or pronoun.

– He walked towards the car.

– She ran towards me.

Some adverbs of place shows the movement and venue / location, for example: ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoors.

example:

– The child went indoors.

– He lived and worked abroad.

– The ceremony was being held outdoors.

– Chris is going to work overseas.

– The road twists uphill.

 

 

5.      Adverb of Degree

Adverb of degree is used to indicate to what extent (level or degree) of an activity or event.

How much can be used to ask questions to show these adverbs.

Functions and examples of adverb of degree :

Based on the position :

Function

Position

Example Adverb of Degree

Example

Explain verb Before main V completely, nearly, strongly He strongly recommended the book.
between the auxiliary and main V entirely, positively, totally I will totally support you.
After main V a lot, greatly, strongly My brother eats a lot.
Explain adjective Before the adjective extremely, really, very The weather is very cold.
Before and After the adjactive so…that, too…to She is so generous that the poors love her.
After adjective Enough The juice is sweet enough.
Explain adverb Before  adverb extremelly, so, too She was swimming so beautifully.
Before and after adverb so…that, too…to The student studied too hard to pass the test.
After  adverb Enough He drives slowly enough.

Adverbs are used to express this level are: almost, nearly, bit, little, fairly, pretty, rather, quite, just, too, slightly, enough, absolutely, really, hardly, scarcely, completely, very, extremely.

Example :

– Laura is a bit tired. She’s been working all morning.
– Mark is quite tired. He’s been working all day.
– Sarah is very tired. She’s had to work late at the office.

Adverbs of degree above shows the level of feeling tired or exhausted, if a little tired, just tired, or very tired.

Location of adverbs of degree before adjectives or other adverbs

Example :

– Rita looked rather upset. (before adjectives)

– This dress is absolutely marvelous. (before adjectives)

– We go on holiday fairly soon. (before adjectives)

– United played extremely well. (before adverbs)

Some adverbs of degree describe verbs (placed before the verb):

– My foot is really hurting.

– She quite enjoys shopping.

– I rather like this cake.

Some adverbs of degree that is located at the end of sentences that describe verbs (a bit, a little, a lot, awfully, much, terribly).

Example:

– Mark travels a lot.

– I’ll open the window a little.

– The animals Suffer terribly.

Adverbs are absolutely, completely and totally can be placed in the middle or at the end of the sentence

Example :

– We completely lost our way.

– We lost our way completely.

– I’m afraid I totally disagree.

– I’m afraid I disagree totally.

Take another example:

– We almost did not get there in time.

– I have nearly finished the words for your songs.

– It costs a bit more than I wanted to spend.

– I got paid a little bit of money.

– Both cars are fairly new.

– That was pretty impressive performance.

– He was just leaving when the phone rang.

– I do not quite know what to do next.

-The walls were not white, but rather a short of dirty gray.

– It’s too late to do anything about it now.

– They will be slightly more expensive but they last a lot longer.

– I had not trained enough for the game.

– It was absolutely pouring with rain.

– I was really fond of Ann.

– We hardly know each other.

– There was scarcely a tree left standing after the storm.

– Portuguese is pronounced completely differently from Spanish.

– At last he had his very own car.

– She found it extremely difficult to get a job.

CHAPTER III

ECONOMIC ARTICLE

KEEP CORRUPTION, ECONOMIC NEGLECTED

 

Indonesia has offered to news about politics and corruption surrounding continuously. Coverage of corruption and political polemics dominate elite portion of the news media. Public readily react on issues, pros and cons and then into information that is consumed. Media became boisterous and rowdy. Such a situation is the necessity of openness and freedom in a democracy. Response in response to information submitted media open space for dialogue, providing opportunities for people to express their opinions. For elite and interest groups have the opportunity to aggregate interests.

Democracy should be boisterous. Because many opinions to strive, compete with a variety of interests jostling to find a way out in order to be accommodated. Excitement we must not forget the essence of a democracy is to create prosperity. Hilarity does not eliminate the noise which brings our focus to improve the economy and people’s welfare. Economic decline, welfare verge of poverty will seduce people to turn his view of democracy.

Democracy is just a means to an end, not an end. Welfare of the people is the goal. When democracy only produces noise, no positive contribution to the economy of the people will ask to see democracy and democracy is obstacle. Political rowdy without a solution to the problems of the economy will have an impact on politics unwilling. Despite the impact of political corruption, the economic agents will be handled by finding loopholes remain available to maximize profits. To hell with politics, corruption does not exist because there is an extra cost for profit. Corruption is just a record of the ‘small’ of the report submitted by the trade organizations.

Combating corruption was ignored. Presence or absence of corruption is not significant to talk about, but look for a ‘solution’ in order not to interfere with the interests of profit. Economic forgotten! Though well-being can only be achieved with the economy. Unless the politicians who succeeded him prosperous by selling power he holds. And that’s the nature of the economy can not leave the selling and buying. Politicians are ‘producers’ who holds the mandate power, and consumers are able to convert their power into financial gain.

Indonesia is a nation preoccupied with politics. Production and trade excluded. Regulations regarding production and trade forgettable. Our sensitivity fades when the country was flooded with imported products. We become a nation of consumers, the result of a mindset that is built that the population is economic potential. The population is only limited object-defined marketing a product or service. The potential number of people are also able to present an assortment of ideas that could become part of the national increase in production and trade.

The results of research by students at the high school level and the university should be disseminated by experts to see him when they wanted improved fasibilitas to be produced by the industry. Findings relating to farmers in agricultural production should be supported by the government. Support in the form of judicial review of the findings, provide incentives and apply it to the process of agricultural production to promote agricultural products needs to be done.

The key word is partiality, the ability of the productive activities and provide support to the inventor or the people who are able to develop productivity. The government acts as a management leader with a clear vision and work together with the community and industry in developing industrial economy and trade. The government should focus, and ‘separate’ themselves from the political noise and bustle of the law enforcement in combating corruption. When governments get involved and then became giddy to work, especially focusing on the management of the industrial economy and trade of the Indonesian economy would break down.

 

 

 

CHAPTER IV

CONCLUSION

Adverb as one of the words spoken Parts of Speech in English grammar is one of the many things that should be known in learning English. Adverb is a word that describes verbs, adjectives and other words except nouns and pronouns. There are various forms of adverb are categorized by function or use. By knowing the adverb, good shape, meaning and application is expected to be one of the capital in learning English is good and right.

REFERENCE

http://smuqonline.blogspot.com/2009/01/adverbs.html

http://englishonline.blogdetik.com/2009/08/12/adjective-dan-adverb-kata-sifat-dan-kata-keterangan/

http://www.wordsmile.com

http://catatanbahasainggris.blogspot.com

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